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A stop, in Commonwealth of Nations and Irish railway jargon, is a small station, usually unmanned or with very few staff and with little or no facilities. In some cases, trains stop only on request, when passengers on the platform indicate that they want to board, or when passengers on the train inform the crew that they want to disembark. A “terminus” or “terminal” is a station located at the end of a railway line. Trains arriving there must complete (finish) their journey or leave the station. Depending on the layout of the station, this usually allows passengers to reach all platforms without having to cross the tracks – the public entrance to the station and the main reception facilities are located at the other end of the platforms. In a station, there are different types of tracks that serve different purposes. A station may also have an overtaking loop with a loop line that deviates from the straight main line and at the other end returns to the main line by railway switches so that trains can pass. [19] Places where passengers only get on or off a train occasionally, sometimes consisting of a short platform and a waiting shed, but sometimes only marked with a sign, are sometimes referred to as “stops”, “flag stops”, “stops” or “temporary stops”. The stations themselves can be at ground level, underground or elevated. Connections to intersecting railway lines or other modes of transportation such as buses, trams, or other rapid transit systems may be available.

Early stations were sometimes built with facilities for passengers and goods, although some railway lines were intended only for goods or only passengers, and if a line had dual use, there was often a cargo yard next to the passenger station. [15] As freight traffic is increasingly carried out by road, many former freight stations and passenger station freight sheds have been closed. In addition, many freight stations are now used only for cross-loading of goods and can be described as transhipment points, where they mainly handle containers. They are also known as container stations or terminals. Terminus stations in major cities are by far the largest stations, the largest being Grand Central Terminal in New York City. [22] Other major cities such as London, Boston, Paris, Istanbul, Tokyo and Milan have more than one arrival point and no route running directly through the city. Train journeys through these cities often require alternative means of transport (metro, bus, taxi or ferry) from one terminus to another. For example, in Istanbul, transfers from the Sirkeci terminal (the European terminus) and the Haydarpaşa terminal (the Asian terminus) historically required crossing the Bosphorus on alternative routes before the completion of the Marmaray railway tunnel between Europe and Asia. Some cities, including New York City, have both termini and public transit lines. Dual-use stations are still sometimes found today, although in many cases freight facilities are limited to large stations. There may be other sidings at the station that are low-speed tracks for other purposes.

A maintenance track or maintenance track that is normally connected to a passing track is used for parking maintenance equipment, non-operational trains, car racks or sleepers. An escape route is a dead-end track that is connected to a station track as a temporary storage room for a disabled train. [19] Many stations, whether larger or smaller, offer transit transfer options; This can range from a simple bus stop across the street to underground S-Bahn stations. The oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street station in Liverpool, England, built in 1830 on the liverpool to Manchester line. The station was slightly older than the terminal at Liverpool Road station in Manchester. The station was the first to contain an engine shed. Crown Street station was demolished in 1836 when Liverpool`s terminus was moved to Lime Street station. Crown Street station was converted into a marshalling yard.

Amsterdam Centraal Station in Amsterdam, Netherlands In addition to the basic configuration of a station, various features characterize certain types of stations. The first is the level of the tracks. Stations are often located where a road crosses the railway: if the intersection is not a level crossing, the road and the railway are at different levels. The platforms are often raised or lowered in relation to the entrance to the station: the station buildings can be located on both levels or on both levels. The other layout, where the station entrance and platforms are at the same level, is also common, but may be rarer in urban areas unless the station is a terminus. Stations at level crossings can be problematic if the train blocks the roadway while it stops, causing road traffic to wait a long time. There are also stations where the station buildings are located above the tracks. [18] An example of this is Arbroath. Sometimes, however, the track passes the station for a short distance, and the terminus trains continue after dropping off their passengers before heading to the sidings or returning to the station to accommodate departing passengers. Bondi Junction and Kristiansand Station, Norway, are like that. More recently built train stations often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple and abstract style.

Examples of modern stations include those of new high-speed rail networks such as the Shinkansen in Japan, the THSR in Taiwan, the TGV lines in France and the ICE lines in Germany. While an intersection or signal box typically shares two or more lines or routes and therefore has remote-controlled or locally operated signals, this is not the case with a station stop. A stop usually has no tracks other than the main tracks and may or may not have switches (switches, level crossings). In many countries in Africa, South America and Asia, the stations are also used as a sales venue for public procurement and other informal businesses. This is especially true for tourist routes or resorts near tourist destinations. Occasionally, a station serves two or more railway lines at different levels. This may be due to the location of the station at a point where two lines intersect (for example, Berlin Central Station), or the provision of separate station capacity for two types of services, such as intercity and suburban services (examples: Paris-Gare de Lyon and Philadelphia`s 30th Street station), or for two different destinations. In the United States, the most common term in contemporary usage is station; The station and station are less common, although they were in the past. [5] In the United States, the term depot is sometimes used as an alternative name for station, along with the connection forms train depot, rail depot and rail depot – it is used for passenger and freight facilities. [6] The term deposit is not used in American English in reference to vehicle maintenance facilities, while it is used, for example, in the United Kingdom and even in neighbouring Canada.

Some termini have a newer set of transit platforms below (or above or next to) terminal platforms at the main level. They are used by an intercity extension of the main line, often for commuter trains, while the terminal platforms can serve long-distance services. Examples of underground lines through include the Thameslink platforms at St Pancras in London, the Argyle and North Clyde lines of the commuter train network from Glasgow to Antwerp in Belgium, the RER at Gare du Nord in Paris, the Passante S-Bahn from Milan and many S-Bahn lines at terminal stations in Germany. Austria and Switzerland, as at Zurich Central Station. [21] Due to the disadvantages of terminal stations, there have been several cases in which one or more terminal stations have been replaced by a new transit station, including the cases of Berlin Hauptbahnhof, Vienna Hauptbahnhof and many examples during the first century of the railway.

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