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In absolute terms, the United States has by far the most tornadoes: since 1990, more than 1,000 have been reported there each year. It also has the most violent tornadoes, about 10 to 20 per year. Tornadoes are nature`s fiercest storms. Tornadoes that have emerged from strong thunderstorms can cause deaths and devastate a neighborhood in seconds. The winds of a tornado can reach 300 miles per hour. Damage paths can be more than a mile wide and 50 miles long. Strong downward (straight) winds can also occur due to the same thunderous sound. Hail is very often found very close to tornadoes, as the strongest thunderstorms that produce tornadoes form in atmospheric conditions that are also very likely to produce hail. Each State is exposed to a certain risk related to this danger. A condensation funnel consists of water droplets and extends downward from the base of the storm. If it is in contact with the ground, it is a tornado; Otherwise, it`s a funnel cloud. Dust and debris under the condensation funnel confirm the presence of a tornado.

[+] Since many tornadoes are only audible in the immediate vicinity, sound should not be understood as a reliable warning signal for a tornado. Tornadoes are also not the only source of this noise during severe thunderstorms; Any strong and destructive wind, any strong flock of hail or any continuous thunder in a thunderstorm can make a roar. [44] EF4 tornado near Marquette, Kansas, April 14, 2012. While tornadoes can strike in the blink of an eye, there are precautions and preventive measures that can be taken to increase the chances of survival. Authorities such as the Storm Prediction Center in the United States recommend having a predetermined plan if a tornado warning is issued. If a warning is issued, going to a basement or inside the first floor of a sturdy building greatly increases the chances of survival. [118] In tornado-prone areas, many buildings have underground storm cellars that have saved thousands of lives. [119] Tornado vortex winds and the constituent turbulent eddies, as well as the interaction of airflow with the surface and debris, contribute to the sounds. Funnel clouds also produce sounds. Funnel clouds and small tornadoes are reported as whistling, moaning, buzzing or buzzing from countless bees or electricity or more or less harmoniously, while many tornadoes are reported as continuous, deep rumblings or irregular “noise” noises.

[43] A tornado is a column of violently rotating air that is in contact with the ground, either as a follower of a cumulative cloud or under a cumulative cloud, and often (but not always) visible as a funnel cloud. [17] For a vortex to be classified as a tornado, it must come into contact with the ground and the cloud base. The term is not precisely defined; For example, there is disagreement as to whether separate landings of the same funnel represent separate tornadoes. [5] Tornado refers to the vortex of the wind, not the condensation cloud. [18] [19] Most tornadoes take on the appearance of a narrow funnel a few hundred meters wide, with a small cloud of debris near the ground. Tornadoes can be completely obscured by rain or dust. These tornadoes are especially dangerous because even experienced meteorologists may not see them. [25] The Fujita Scale and the Improved Fujita Scale rate tornadoes based on the damage caused.

The Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF) was an update of the old Fujita Scale, by an expert survey, using technical wind estimates and better descriptions of damage. The EF scale was designed for a tornado rated on the Fujita scale to receive the same numerical rating, and was implemented in the United States starting in 2007. An EF0 tornado is likely to damage trees but not essential structures, while an EF5 tornado can tear buildings from their foundations, leaving them bare and even deforming tall skyscrapers. The similar TORO scale ranges from T0 for extremely weak tornadoes to T11 for the strongest known tornadoes. Doppler weather radar data, photogrammetry, and ground vortex patterns (cycloidal marks) can also be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating. [5] [67] [68] Meteorologists still do not know the exact mechanisms by which most tornadoes form, and occasional tornadoes still strike without issuing a tornado warning. [135] Analysis of observations involving both in situ and mobile remote sensing instruments (surface and antenna) and remote sensing instruments (passive and active) leads to new ideas and refines existing concepts. Numerical modeling also provides new insights as observations and new discoveries are integrated into our physical understanding and then tested into computer simulations that validate new terms and produce entirely new theoretical knowledge, many of which are otherwise inaccessible. It is important to note that the development of new observation technologies and the installation of finer observation networks with spatial and temporal resolution have contributed to better understanding and predictions. [136] The lower mesocyclone and extent of invertebrates at low levels that contract into tornadoes are also studied,[85] in particular, what are the processes and what is the relationship between the environment and the convective storm.

Intense tornadoes have been observed forming simultaneously with a mesocyclone at altitude (rather than following mesocyclogenesis), and some intense tornadoes have occurred without an average mesocyclone. [132] An old belief is that the southwest corner of a basement offers the greatest protection during a tornado. The safest place is the side or corner of an underground room in front of the tornado`s approach direction (usually the northeast corner) or the most central room on the lower floor. Hiding in a basement, under a staircase or under sturdy furniture such as a workbench further increases the chances of survival. [122] [123] Brightness has been reported in the past and is likely due to incorrect identification of external light sources such as flashes, city lights, and power flashes from interrupted lines, as internal sources are now reported in unusual ways and are not known to have ever been recorded. In addition to winds, tornadoes also show changes in atmospheric variables such as temperature, humidity, and pressure. For example, on June 24, 2003, near Manchester, South Dakota, a probe measured a pressure drop of 100 millibars (100 hPa; 3.0 inHg). The pressure gradually dropped as it approached the vortex, then dropped extremely rapidly to 850 mbar (850 hPa; 25 inHg) in the heart of the violent tornado before rising rapidly as the vortex moved away, resulting in a V-shaped pressure track. The temperature tends to drop in the immediate vicinity of a tornado and the moisture content increases. [51] Tornadoes emit far into the acoustic spectrum and sounds are caused by several mechanisms. Various tornado sounds have been reported, referring mainly to sounds familiar to the witness and usually to a variation of a roaring roar.

Commonly reported sounds include a freight train, rapids or waterfall, a nearby jet engine, or combinations of these. Many tornadoes cannot be heard from far away; The type and distance of propagation of audible sound depends on atmospheric conditions and topography. [Citation needed] Different types of tornadoes include multi-vertebrae tornado, gargoyle and gargoyle. Gargoyles are characterized by a funnel-shaped spiral wind flow associated with a large cumulus or cumulonimbus. They are generally classified as non-supercellular tornadoes that grow over bodies of water, but there is disagreement over whether they should be classified as true tornadoes. These spiral air columns often grow in tropical areas near the equator and are less common at high latitudes. [6] Other tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the gustnado, the dust devil, the fire vortex, and the steam devil. Tornadoes can have a wide range of colors, depending on the environment in which they form. Those that form in dry environments can be almost invisible and marked only by swirling debris at the base of the funnel. Condensation funnels that absorb little or no deposit can be gray to white.

When navigating a body of water (such as gargoyles), tornadoes can turn white or even blue. Slow funnels that absorb a significant amount of dirt and grime tend to be darker and take on the color of debris. Tornadoes in the Great Plains can turn red due to the reddish hue of the ground, and tornadoes in mountainous areas can move on snowy ground and turn white. [25] A tornado in bursts or in front of gusts is a small vertical vortex associated with a gust front or a downburst. Since they are not associated with a cloud base, there is a debate about whether or not gustnadoes are tornadoes. They occur when cold, dry runoff from a thunderstorm moves quickly and is blown through a stationary, hot, moist air mass near the drainage line, resulting in a “rolling effect” (often exemplified by a rolling cloud). If the low wind shear is strong enough, the rotation can be rotated vertically or diagonally and come into contact with the ground. The result is a burst. [5] [64] They usually cause small areas with stronger rotational damage in areas with linear wind damage. [Citation needed] Climate change can affect tornadoes on teleconnections by shifting the jet stream and wider weather conditions.

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